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The nose is part of the human respiratory system. The outer nose includes the nose root (nose pyramid) at the top, the bridge of the nose, the tip of the nose, the lateral nostrils and the bridge between the nostrils. Except for the pyramid of the nose, the entire outer nose is made up of a flexible cartilage structure that can absorb minor impacts without being damaged. The nostrils are already assigned to the inner nose. This is followed by the nasal vestibule and behind it the nasal cavity, which is divided into two mirror-symmetrical areas by the nasal septum. The nasal cavity includes the turbinates and nasal passages as well as the olfactory organ in the upper nasal passage. In the direction of the nasopharynx, the so-called choanes (special paired openings between the nasal passages and the nasopharynx or nasopharynx) form the end of the nasal cavity. The entire nasal cavity is lined with the nasal mucosa. The paranasal sinuses also form a component of the nasal cavity, whereby these lie as mucous membranes between different skull bones. The location of the paranasal sinuses can often also be identified (for example, sinuses, frontal sinus).
The nose performs essential functions in breathing by cleaning, warming and moisturizing the air when inhaled. The coarse particles remain in the nasal hair, finer particles are bound with the nasal secretions and transported towards the throat. The nasal mucosa is often the first point of attack for pathogens, which is why permanent moistening is of particular importance. If the nasal mucous membranes are too dry, this makes it easier for bacteria and viruses to penetrate. The result can be, for example, an inflammation of the nasal mucosa with a runny nose and, where appropriate, other typical cold symptoms, up to sinus infections or frontal sinus infections. However, the nose is not only a point of attack for infections, but also anatomical impairments such as the excessive spread of nasal polyps or a crooked nasal septum are among the most common symptoms. In addition, there are acute injuries to the nose in the form of a broken nose, such as occur more frequently in the event of accident injuries and physical violence. Last but not least, tumor diseases such as basal cell carcinoma should also be mentioned as possible diseases in the nose area. (fp)